助成対象詳細 | 公益財団法人トヨタ財団

公益財団法人トヨタ財団

助成対象詳細

Details

2018 国際助成プログラム International Grant Program     

「彼ら」を知るために「私たち」を理解する―ファシリテイティブ・リスニング・デザインを用いた地域レベルでの共感の醸成
Understanding "Us" to know "Them": Employing Facilitative Listening Design regionally to build empathy towards the Other through understanding those we can relate to

企画書・概要

Abstract of Project Proposal

『「彼ら」を知るために「私たち」を理解する』は、情報を収集して相互理解を深め、共感を醸成することを目的として、カンボジアのWomen Peace Makersにより開発されたコミュニティでの活動に向けたアプローチを用いる。カンボジア国外に住むマイノリティとしてのクメール族の参加者にトレーニングを提供し、ファシリテイティブ・リスニング・デザイン(FLD)を用いて、彼らのコミュニティ内での意見および感じていることをまとめ、マイノリティ・グループである彼らが置かれた立場での強みと弱みに関する新たな認識を得る。また、カンボジア人の参加者が、自国内のマイノリティに焦点を当てて同様にFLDを用いることで、2つの異なるマイノリティ・グループの分析および比較のための一連のデータが得られる。グループとしてまとめた「クメール族」あるいは「カンボジア人」の一貫性から、カンボジア国内の「その他の」民族が、ベトナムやタイでマイノリティ・グループとして生活しているクメール族と同じような意見を持ち、同じようなことを感じていることもわかってくる。このプロジェクトの最終的な目標は、マイノリティ・グループとして生活している「私たち」を理解することによって、他のマイノリティ・グループの人たちがどのようなことを経験しているかを認識することである。
Understanding “Us” to know “Them” employs a community-based action approach developed by Women Peace Makers in Cambodia to collect information and subsequently foster better mutual understanding and empathy towards others. By training Khmer minority participants from outside of Cambodia to use Facilitative Listening Design (FLD) to gather opinions and perceptions within their communities, they will provide a new understanding of the strengths and challenges in their minority contexts. By then having Cambodian participants take the same approach with minorities inside of Cambodia, there will be a range of data for analysis and comparison of two different minority settings. Bringing the whole group together, the connectness of being “Khmer” or “Cambodian" will also show that "the Other" inside Cambodia has similar experiences and perceptions as Khmer minorities in Vietnam and Thailand. The ultimate goal is to consequently understand the experience of other minority groups by understanding "us" in a more familiar context.

実施したプロジェクト内容と方法

Describe the implemented project and the method used

Understanding ‘Us’ to know ‘Them’ was implemented over four years from 2018 to 2022. The concept originated to explore minority groups in other countries that the mainstream could relate to in order to potentially foster empathy towards minority groups within their own country. In particular, the focus on the ethnic Vietnamese minority in Cambodia with the ethnic Khmer minorities and Cambodian migrants in the bordering countries of Vietnam and Thailand was intentional. The hope was that if mainstream Khmer Cambodians could see themselves in Khmer and Cambodian minorities abroad, they might be able to better understand and empathise with the Vietnamese minority within their own borders.


The overarching methodology used in this project was Facilitative Listening Design (FLD), a Cambodian homegrown approach developed over years of inquiry and practice by Women Peace Makers (WPM) (see The FLD Story: https://wpmcambodia.org/project/the-fld-story ). FLD is a community-centred action research methodology that puts equal focus on gathering information and the transformative process that can happen through listening to other perspectives among different groups (see The FLD Handbook: https://wpmcambodia.org/project/the-fld-handbook ). For this deployment of FLD, eight community researchers (“Listeners”) joined from minority groups in the three countries. Implementation and coordination support was led by mainstream members from each country. Listeners reached out to 40 respondents (“Sharers”) in each target community for a total of 120 minority participants. The Listeners and coordinators processed their own data, carried out various levels of analysis, and reflected upon the findings as active community researchers. The findings were later published in a book that was written with authors representing seven countries (see Who’s Listening? Understanding ‘Us’ to know ‘Them’: https://wpmcambodia.org/project/whos-listening-understanding-us-to-know-them ).


The project also included an additional innovative methodology for listening through human-centred storytelling. Following a training in the methodology and in filming techniques, Listeners returned to their communities and reconnected with a Sharer from their research in order to tell their story as a minority in a short documentary they produced (see the film series Parallel Lives: https://wpmcambodia.org/project/parallel ). The documentaries were screened in communities around the region, particularly engaging mainstream audiences to spark deep discussions on identity, nationality, borders, and perceptions of “the other” (see Screening and Dialogue: https://wpmcambodia.org/project/screening-and-dialogue ).


Other art forms were woven into the project’s approach, particularly within the scope of the highly sensitive ethnic Vietnamese minority in Cambodia. Due to the precarious situation of their legal identity and risk of being stateless along with ongoing relocation plans by local authorities, it became extremely difficult to share findings with the public, particularly at the earlier stages of the project. An artistic intervention was developed between artists and community members. An artist came to paint a boat from their floating village following days of storytelling and sharing by the residents. Simultaneously, members from the community were trained how to use cameras and took photos of the floating village. The photos and the painted boat were exhibited in the capital city, Phnom Penh, and fostered a space where these sensitive issues could be expressed without such risk. The conversations that happened around the art eventually contributed to more awareness and network-building related to the issues at hand. In a symbolic sense, the photos and the boat also captured a community that today no longer exits. Following multiple generations of families who lived their for decades, the community was dismantled and the residents were relocated, leaving the art as a tribute to the community and their past (see Life Afloat - A living exhibition of a community and a home once upon a time…: https://wpmcambodia.org/project/a-living-exhibition ).


The concept of Understanding ‘Us’ to know ‘Them’ was very well received by audiences, particularly amongst youth. The focus on cultivating empathy deeply inspired the Cambodia-based Network for Interethnic Peace Ambassadors (NIPA), prompting us to work together to explore empathy-centred programming as a pillar in our work. We co-produced an animation to tell a real story from a member of NIPA that further took our project concept into the field for peacebuilders and those working on interethnic harmony (see The Key to a Colorful World is Empathy: https://wpmcambodia.org/project/the-empathy ).


Following the findings and the publication of the work, it was once again decided that a creative method to capture the dimensions of identity and sense of place or home for minorities across borders was needed to communicate findings in another way besides the written form. Following the success of the short documentaries, the trainers of human-centred storytelling were invited to return to Cambodia and produce an ethnographic documentary. They were able to reconnect with three of the original project Sharers and previous documentary subjects and direct a through-provoking short film called Where the Sun Sets. It shares the stories of three characters living as minorities in Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam, creatively using scenery, dialogue, and action to show connections and sometimes even cause the viewer to question who or where the scene is – demonstrating that we are truly an interconnected region. A first cut of the film was screened at the end of the project to the public in Phnom Penh and a Director’s Cut will be produced following the project to screen with wider audiences around the world.

  • The team from Thailand at the FLD methodology training in Phu Quoc, Vietnam.
  • The Cambodian team filming an ethnic Vietnamese family living on the water in Kampong Chhnang province.
  • The team processes data and carries out analysis of their FLD research from across the region in Buriram, Thailand.

助成期間終了時点での成果と今後期待される波及効果等

Describe the results at the end of the grant period and expected ripple effects

This work has significantly contributed to establishing a framework around identity and association to “the other” through the concept of Understanding ‘Us’ to know ‘Them.’ The approach in exploring minorities outside the borders to then incorporate minorities within has been very successful in encouraging people to question their own perceptions, particularly negative ones towards minorities that are close to home. Prior to this project, it was extremely difficult to bring up the issue of the ethnic Vietnamese minority group to the Cambodian public. However, using Khmer and Cambodian minorities overseas in bordering countries (Vietnam and Thailand) to first cultivate empathy provided a more open and responsive space to engage on more sensitive issues.

The Facilitative Listening Design (FLD) methodology evolved over the course of the project through deeper exploration of its potential in both gathering new information and in leveraging the process for transformational impact among participants and community members involved. Through the conversations with 120 people from minority communities in three countries in numerous languages, FLD proved to be adaptable enough to customise it for a very diverse context. Carrying it out at the initial phase of the project showed the importance of starting with a listening stage, where everyone has a chance to hear from others before sharing their own perspectives. FLD also demonstrated its value in creating a space of inquiry where very different people can come together and examine issues from different perspectives while developing mutual understanding as they come across new information. This contribution to the methodology will undoubtably shape future work with FLD and add to its continual refinement as a an important participatory action research method for peacebuilders and communities seeking ways to leverage research for impactful change through the process.

An unexpected outcome of this work in the final stages of the project was the engagement of experts from other countries and regions in order to expand our work beyond the initial target area. Through the publication of our methodology and findings, we brought in academics and practioners from Malaysia, the Philippines, Myanmar, and the USA who all felt connected to the framework and the concept of identity in relation to “the other.” This has greatly influenced how we now see the potential of FLD as a particularly action research approach and the possibility of expanding this as a model for the region and beyond. Likewise, the translation of findings into more creative outputs including community-led documentaries, an art exhibition, and an ethnographic film on minorities in our region have provided the opportunity to reach far more audiences both in our target countries and abroad.

Another important impact has been the mobilisation of the Network of Interethnic Peace Ambassadors (NIPA) in Cambodia around the concept offered in this project. This group of young people in the country working towards the promotion of ethnic minorities and equality and inclusion was immediately drawn to the framework of Understanding ‘Us’ to know ‘Them’ and initiated their own work to explore its usefulness in fostering empathy through deeper questioning of who is considered ‘the other.’ Their uptake of the concept and active mobilisation of it with their network is inspiring and promising. They are now exploring how to not only apply it in the Cambodian context, but also to continue working across borders to encourage people to think beyond their communities.

One of the more surprising outcomes that was observed during the project was the impact that the intervention had on the mainstream participants. The country directors who worked to coordinate the research and art activies in their respective countries with minority groups were all members of the mainstream ethnic majority. Although this was not part of the initial design, the inclusion of these mainstream participants in such a special coordination role allowed them the opportunity for deep listening to the minority groups. This, in turn, provided a space for some signifant transformation on part of the directors who had not had such exposure to the minority groups prior to the project. It was mentioned that two of them felt “they had become minorities within the project” and also that they had a chance to “hear the unheard.” The accompaniment of the mainstream particpants demonstrated that the potential for a larger societal impact can happen by fostering the appropriate space for listening, sharing, and connecting between minority and majority populations. It is likely that this significant observation and learning will be incorporated into the FLD methodology so that it can be further refined to bring such groups together through an interactive learning process that allows participants to not only participate, but to own and drive the process.
  • A visitor explores the exhibition of Life Afloat that brought together an artist and an ethnic Vietnamese minority community in Cambodia to use photography to capture scenes of their floating village.
  • The Vietnam team presents their film about an ethnic Khmer minority dancer in their country to ethnic Khmer residents in Surin, Thailand.
  • Book authors from Cambodia, the Philippines, and Malaysia discuss the publication at the book launch.

プロジェクト情報

Project

プログラム名(Program)
2018 国際助成プログラム International Grant Program     
助成番号(Grant Number)
D18-N-0119
題目(Project Title)
「彼ら」を知るために「私たち」を理解する―ファシリテイティブ・リスニング・デザインを用いた地域レベルでの共感の醸成
Understanding "Us" to know "Them": Employing Facilitative Listening Design regionally to build empathy towards the Other through understanding those we can relate to
代表者名(Representative)
スーヒン・クリー / Suyheang Kry
代表者所属(Organization)
ウィメン・ピースメイカーズ
Women Peace Makers
助成金額(Grant Amount)
7,000,000
リンク(Link)
活動地域(Area)