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2017 研究助成プログラム Research Grant Program   [ (A)共同研究助成  (A) Joint Research Grants ]

Bottom-up Approach to Land Concession in Vietnam: Strengthening effective small and medium enterprises


Abstract of Project Proposal

 Since the 1990s, Vietnamese agricultural growth has slowed down so that the government has encouraged land transformation to promote urbanization and large-scale agricultural production especially from economic point of view. Changes in land use have brought about many social issues especially in the periphery between rural and urban and rural area, including labor shortage originated from aging and migration, collapse of community, deterioration of natural resources such as land degradation, water shortages, pollution, etc. In this study, we consider this transformation process of land as "land concession" because it is quite difficult for local people to join the development process once land has been enclosed by a large-scale land-holder or developer. To overcome such problems, we will examine Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) model. The research will be undertaken the following steps, 1) Mapping land concession associated with land use change, 2) Data collection on SMEs, and 3) Integrated analysis. Our research findings will be contributed to the argument on land concession or even "land grab" and to preventing expansion of social disparities and inequality especially for vulnerable people.


Describe the implemented project and the method used

<<Final Report>>http://toyotafound.or.jp/research/2017/data/Nghiem_Thi_Phuong_Tuyen_Final_Report_D17-R-0709_revised.pdf

This study applied remote sensing (aerial and satellite image) combined with field survey to measure data of agricultural land conversion for urban expansion in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh city from 1988 to 2018. As urban settlements usually concentrate in a small area and it is difficult to question the residents about their land it makes remote sensing more appropriate method.

The land conversion in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City was mapped based on location details and causes of the conversion. The research also described how the remained agricultural land was used after conversion and discussed the meaning of this study regarding development of urban areas which have long history of agricultural production like Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City

Satellite images were used to identify different types of land use. Some of the land use types cannot be separated using image analysis, such as between land use and commercial land, therefore later separated by field survey.

The selected research sites were selected in Hanoi and Hochiminh City based on the following criteria: (1) agricultural land was fully acquired and converted at the earliest, around the year 2000s; (2) agricultural land was partially acquired and converted recently.

The selected sites were: Nhan Chinh (Thanh Xuan district) and Minh Khai (Nam Tu Liem district) wards in Hanoi.

  • Land use changes in Hanoi from 1988 to 2017
  • Land use changes in Ho Chi Minh City from 1988 to 2017


Describe the results at the end of the grant period and expected ripple effects

Currently, the urbanization rate in Vietnam reaches 34% (1%/year) . The process of rapid urbanization causes many challenges and impacts on the livelihoods of people living in peri-urban areas, especially in the areas surrounding large cities where the influence of urban areas is very strong. Urbanization associated with industrialization and modernization has directly transformed the economic structure and labor structure, contributing to the economic restructuring in both urban and rural areas. Urbanization brings industrial parks, export processing zones, service centers, new urban areas... to increase the use value of land, create new industries and jobs, improve the value of labor. This study shows the process of urban space expansion along with the appearance of housing projects, real estate, concentrated industrial parks, large-scale commercial service works in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City which transforms the landscape and changes the land use patterns in peri-urban areas, where agricultural land is acquired for urban development. In those peri-urban areas, the economic structure is shaped and developed according to the needs of the city. Agricultural production declined and new models of non-agricultural activities and services were spontaneously formed. This economic restructuring brings about a change in living standards for local residents and improve their access to urban services such as hospitals, schools... Urbanization in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City creates many jobs from promoting the development of service industries, commerce, industry ... However, the problem is that the local people are used to farming in their rice fields and have no skills to adapt to new jobs in factories.
The research also shows that urbanization in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City also leads to major changes in land use structure. Urbanization creates a sharp change in land use in peri-urban areas through the conversion of a large part of agricultural land to land for construction of industrial parks, services, and urban residential areas. Land use efficiency is a critical issue. When agriculture production activities do not bring income people will not hesitate to abandon their agricultural land to find jobs elsewhere or convert it to another form (building small apartments for rent, etc.) to increase income.
The research has the following impacts:
The research results have meaningful contributions to other studies on the topic of urbanization and its impact. The results of this study provide compelling evidence to show the impact of urbanization on livelihoods and land use in large cities. Indirectly, this study is a reference source for studies aimed at revising the land policies. According to the government's assessment, the implementation of the 2013 Land Law has a number of limitations, of which the causes include irrational land use and land use planning, inconsistency and uniformity in land use at regional level. The research results contribute to improving regulations on regional land use; urban land use planning.

The research conducts surveys and interviews with local communities and government organizations to consult about livelihood and land use policies, therefore the research results have practical contribution to the debate of land use policy in Vietnam.

This research project expands access to knowledge and fosters cooperation between Japanese and Vietnamese researchers on the critically important issue of urbanization and its impact on livelihoods and land use in the major urban areas of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City and develop the capacity for development-oriented research cooperation between the Center for Southeast Asian Studies of Kyoto University and the Institute of Environmental Resources of National University, Hanoi.



2017 研究助成プログラム Research Grant Program   【(A)共同研究助成  (A) Joint Research Grants】
助成番号(Grant Number)
題目(Project Title)
Bottom-up Approach to Land Concession in Vietnam: Strengthening effective small and medium enterprises
ギエム ティ フオン トゥイエン / Nghiem Thi Phuong Tuyen
Central Institute for Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, Vietnam National University, Hanoi
助成金額(Grant Amount)